60 year development history of the hottest instrum

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The 60 year development history of instrumentation industry

how important is instrumentation and measurement control in promoting the development of science and technology and national economy in today's information age. It is the multiplier of industrial production, the pioneer of scientific research, the combat effectiveness of military, and the materialized judge of modern social activities

as we all know, the world has entered the information age, and information technology has become the key technology to promote the rapid development of science and technology. Qian Xuesen, a famous scientist, clearly pointed out that information technology includes measurement technology, computer technology and communication technology. Measurement technology is the foundation. The rapid development of information technology has produced a huge emerging information industry, which has become a leading industry driving the development of the world economy. That is to say, measurement technology is the foundation and source of information technology, and instrumentation industry is an important part of the information industry. It goes without saying that instrumentation and measurement control play an important role in promoting the development of science and technology and national economy in the information age

I. status and role

due to the important status and role of instrumentation and measurement control, the society has attached great importance to it. In recent years, the country has taken a series of major measures to accelerate its development. The measures worthy of special mention are:

at the fourth session of the Seventh National People's Congress held in March 2001, it was put forward that the development of instruments and meters should be placed in an important position in the outline of the Tenth Five Year Plan for national economic and social development. It is the first time since the founding of the people's Republic of China that instrumentation has been mentioned in the national development outline and placed in an important position. Then, many ministries and commissions, such as the State Planning Commission, the economic and Trade Commission and the Ministry of science and technology, listed a number of special projects and spent a large amount of money to support the development of instruments and meters

in 2005, the national development and Reform Commission officially issued several opinions on accelerating the revitalization of the equipment manufacturing industry, and proposed to select 16 key development areas in various industries to support the development of special projects, of which the 11th is the automation control system and precision testing instruments of major projects

in 2006, the outline of the national medium and long-term science and technology development plan was formulated, involving a number of instrumentation and measurement control development projects

in April 2008, the Ministry of science and technology, the national development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of education and the China Association for science and technology jointly issued several opinions on strengthening the work of innovative methods, and officially launched the work of innovative methods to be carried out nationwide. In this document, it is clearly proposed that innovative methods include innovative thinking, innovative methods and innovative tools. Innovative tools mainly refer to scientific instruments that promote scientific and technological innovation. The important role of scientific instruments has been further enhanced, and development and research have been more strongly supported

in addition, supporting the development of instrumentation and measurement control has also been placed in an important position in the 863 program, especially the space program and other national science and technology development plans. In such a favorable situation, instrumentation and measurement control have developed rapidly in recent years

II. Industry overview

the growth rate of more than 20% for four consecutive years

China's instrument industry is a high-speed and stable development industry, but among the 13 industries of the machinery industry, instruments and meters do not belong to the industry with the highest growth rate, and the growth rate in the past four years is between 20% and 27%

another feature of the instrument industry is the relatively large import and export deficit, which is the largest among the 13 industries in the machinery industry. In 2005, the total import and export volume of China's instrument industry was 19.359 billion US dollars, of which 14.014 billion US dollars were imported, with a year-on-year increase of 15.7%, and 5.245 billion US dollars were exported, with a year-on-year increase of 30.8%

the instrument and meter industry in the whole Electromechanical industry is an industry that has made rapid progress in restructuring and transformation. A considerable number of state-owned enterprises have been converted to private enterprises, and foreign-funded enterprises are also very active. Many famous instrument and meter multinational companies abroad have invested or expanded production in China. According to the statistics of economic structure type, Chinese enterprises (including state-owned, state-owned holding and private enterprises) account for about 55.12% of the industry sales revenue, with profits accounting for 54.59%, and the rest are foreign-funded enterprises

there are still some noteworthy situations in China's instrument industry. First, China is a developing country, and the instrument industry has a gap of 10-15 years compared with developed countries. However, among developing countries, China is the largest and most complete country with the strongest comprehensive strength in the instrument industry

secondly, China has a great demand for instruments and meters, which is one of the fastest growing countries. The growth rate of instruments and meters in the world is 3% - 4%. China has achieved an annual growth rate of more than 20% for four consecutive years, and some products have accounted for one tenth of the world

third, at present, the instrument industry is an industry that directly competes with foreign investors, and foreign investment in China has entered the third stage. The first stage is joint venture and technology export. The second stage is the transformation of joint venture into holding around the 1990s. Now it has entered the third stage, which is dominated by sole proprietorship and merger of excellent enterprises in China

fourth, some medium - and low-end products have scale advantages and international market competitiveness. For example, ordinary digital multimeter and other products account for a large amount of production in the world, and the production capacity of household watt hour meters accounts for 50% of the world. At present, China has become a major producer and exporter of watt hour meters, microscopes, telescopes, thermometers, pressure gauges, water meters, gas meters, optical components and other products, and the export of high-end products such as container testing equipment has also begun to make breakthroughs

III. technical status

most of the high-end markets are occupied by multinational companies

instruments and meters have a wide range of products, covering a wide range of areas. According to the new national economic classification standard, there are 20 sub categories of instruments and meters, which can be summarized into 4 categories: industrial automation instruments and control systems, scientific testing instruments, common instruments and meters and special instruments and meters. Among them, the automation control system, main field instruments and key precision testing instruments have the greatest impact on the pillar industries and major equipment of the national economy and represent the industry level

automatic control system and backbone field instruments

according to the technical level, source and market situation of products, automatic control system and backbone field instruments can be roughly divided into the following four categories

the first category is generally used for temperature measurement, pressure measurement, flow, display and control regulation instruments. Most of these products are medium and low-grade. Chinese enterprises have the ability to undertake the improvement and market adaptability research and development of products

the second category is products that introduced technology and have been localized in the 1980s and early 1990s. Chinese enterprises of this kind of products have mastered the core manufacturing technology, can produce stably, and the products have a certain market share. However, due to the maturity of foreign new generation products and a large number of them entering the market, at present, the products produced by different industries in the pull range of Chinese enterprises are mainly used for small and medium-sized engineering projects

the third category is China's self-developed high and medium-grade products, representative products such as distributed control system (DCS) and electromagnetic flowmeter. The basic performance and functions of these products have been close to those of foreign products, with a high market share and rising. However, the application objects are still mainly small and medium-sized engineering projects, and the main applications for large-scale engineering projects are non main devices, non main control systems and non key stations

the fourth category is high and middle grade products used in large-scale engineering projects dominated by national key projects. At present, the vast majority of projects in China adopt products produced and imported by foreign-funded enterprises, such as large-scale DCS systems, PLC, nuclear power digital control systems and instruments, high-precision pressure/differential pressure transmitters, large differential pressure/wear/impact resistant regulating valves, mass flow meters, ultrasonic flow meters and other products, as well as varieties with low consumption, high technical difficulty and strong specificity

precision testing instruments

the precision testing instruments developed and produced in China at this stage have reached the international technical level in the Middle School of the 1990s, mainly including chromatographic instruments, spectrometers, electrochemical instruments, research optical microscopes, scanning electron microscopes, electronic scales, centrifuges, electronic universal testing machines, ultrasonic flaw detectors, X-ray flaw detectors, electronic theodolites, precision electrical testing instruments, etc. The technical level of some products is close to and up to the advanced level of current international similar products, such as microwave plasma spectrometer, portable photoionization gas chromatograph, fully automatic atomic absorption spectrophotometer, atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer, laser interferometry, total station, fully automatic intelligent ultrasonic flaw detector, fully automatic remote diagnosis optical microscope, etc

At present, the products produced by Chinese enterprises can meet the general needs of scientific research, production and society, but the high-end needs mainly rely on imports

IV. development trend

the future development of scientific instruments should pay attention to the following aspects:

1. Analytical instruments

optical trapping is a new optical micromanipulation technology. It focuses a beam of light into a micron spot with a high numerical aperture objective lens to form a gradient to capture and move small particles. This technology is widely used in various micro fields

micro chromatograph will be developed rapidly. C2v company has launched the world's smallest and fastest handheld gas chromatograph, with a host size of 1248460mm and a column module size of 6010012.5mm, which can complete the full analysis of the main components of natural gas in seconds

Great progress has been made in the miniaturization of NMR in recent years. Neuchel University in Switzerland has successfully developed a RF planar micro coil with high quality factor for the full NMR analysis system of microfluidic chip. The required sample size is only nanoliter, and the required signal-to-noise ratio can be obtained in a few seconds. NMR miniaturization should be a development direction worthy of attention

optical frequency comb spectroscopy is another important instrument technology developed recently. Using this technology, many different gases can be detected with high sensitivity in a very short time, and it will play an important role in the field of clinical diagnosis

2. Precision detection instruments

nowadays, the era has entered a new stage of molecular and atomic analysis and detection. The development of micro nano technology directly promotes the rapid development of precision detection instruments. Special attention should be paid to mems/nems (micro motor system/nano electromechanical system) testing instruments, scanning probe microscopy represented by scanning tunneling microscope and atomic force microscope, and the new development of a series of SPM based on the basic principle of stm/afm, such as magnetic microscope, electrostatic force microscope and so on

3. Photon imaging instrument

a new discipline integrating Photonics and life science, biomedical photonics has grown rapidly with the development of laser, electronics, spectroscopy, microscopy, optical fiber and other technologies, and many new scientific instruments have emerged. The application of these instruments not only enriched people's understanding of the interaction mechanism between light and biological tissues, but also promoted the invention of various new biological research instruments and medical diagnostic instruments. Photon imaging technology mainly includes diffuse optical tomography, fluorescence imaging, coherent tomography, photoacoustic imaging and so on. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) combines confocal microscopy and heterodyne detection technology of low coherent light. It is a two-dimensional or three-dimensional imaging technology extended from one-dimensional optical low coherent reflection measurement technology

4. Spectral analysis

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